Is Honey Vegan? Breaking Down The Ethics of Beekeeping

Is Honey Vegan?

The question “is honey vegan?” has become a fascinating topic to me. When I first became vegan over five years ago, I admittedly ate honey for a couple of years from local sources.

I thought consuming honey was a good thing because of the potential health benefits. I also thought it was harmless and that bees weren’t exploited. Oh, was I wrong. 

In this post, I explore the commercial bee industry, how unnatural and harmful beekeeping has become, as well as answering lots of questions I had about the honey they make and the role bees play in our ecosystem.

The global honey market has boomed as it’s being increasingly recognised as a healthier alternative to cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup. At this point, we should pause and ask “how has the industry of beekeeping changed over time to keep up with the demand?”.

If we look at the honey industry from the same perspective as factory farming, most of what we’ll find on the supermarket shelves will be from exploitative practices.

Before we get into it, I’d also like to point out that yes bees are animals. All insects are. So if you look at the definition of veganism outlined by its founder, Donald Watson, you will understand that honey is not vegan.

But let’s break it all down.

How does commercial beekeeping work?

I’ve been learning about commercial beekeeping and the honey industry as a whole for about a year now. Not until I finally decided to write this post did I dive deep into how honey is produced on a larger scale. This opened up my eyes to an industry that is far from ethical.

In the current state of the honey industry, the supply can simply not meet the demand.

How is it that the population of bees globally is drastically decreasing (due to chemical sprays that are killing them), yet we seem to be ramping up the production year on year as the popularity of honey increases? So, if you’re buying commercially produced honey, sorry I have some bad news for you. You’re probably not buying pure honey.

After watching the documentary series Rotten on Netflix, where they did an episode on bees, it all leads to one answer. Adulterated honey.

Adulterated honey is honey that has been tampered with. Typically a mix of imported kinds of honey to round out the flavour as well as ingredients that shouldn’t be in honey. For many years they manipulated honey so that when it was lab-tested, it looked like it was just pure honey.

Ingredients like rice syrup were used that weren’t able to be detected in the lab tests. Some also found medications and blends of rice malt and fructose corn syrup in the test results. The honey blend was also detected to have antibiotics which could be illegal and deadly. It’s no joke. 

Is Honey Vegan?

I won’t go into too much detail because this isn’t the focus of the post. I would, however, like to give you a bit more of an understanding of what typically happens with commercial beekeeping. 

In commercial beekeeping, honey doesn’t tend to make them much money. It’s the contracts with the farms that need bees to pollinate their crops that do. Pollination is dependant on two different factors; insects or the wind. There are many foods that we wouldn’t have if it weren’t for the work that bees do.

For bees to be able to pollinate these crops; which are normally monocrops—they have to be transported year-round to pollenate them. This would be very stressful for the bees, and many die in the transportation process. It’s unnatural for them to be moving around from place to place all the time, which also increases their chances of disease.

The reason many bees die off in this type of beekeeping is that the sprays that are used on the crops are deadly (as mentioned earlier). Billions of bees are dying worldwide because of chemical use. It’s also been found that bees can get lost and disoriented after being in contact with the chemicals, and if they don’t return to their hive within 24 hours, they die.

This is because pesticides weaken their immune systems, create issues with their digestive systems, slowly harming their brains as well as the issues I mentioned previously. If you’re interested in learning more, you can read up on CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder) which has become an issue globally since it’s first reporting back in 2006.

The devastating impact of commercial beekeeping

When honeybees come to monocrops for pollination, they end up pushing out all other types of wild/native bees and other insects that are in that area. This means that there’s less food for wild bees to eat. It would explain why certain breeds of bees are dying off globally as the honeybees would push out the other species. This can easily disrupt the normal flow of local ecosystems.

With commercial beekeeping, bees are subject to a variety of different processes and procedures. I have outlined some above, but they also include artificial insemination for the queen as well as clipping of her wings so she doesn’t fly off, manual replacement of the hive’s queen bee, treatment with antibiotics, and culling.

Culling is done for many reasons; one is when there’s an outbreak of disease, and another is if it’s the end of the pollinating season. They kill the colony to save costs over the winter months as it’s cheaper to start with a new batch of bees when the season begins again, rather than to look after their existing colony. 


How is honey made? 

Honey is made from bees collecting propolis, water and plant sap with their long pointed tongue. They have a separate stomach called the crop where they store all the nectar until they get it back to the hive. This is done once their honey stomach is full; this is a separate stomach to their main stomach. As they are flying back, the enzymes begin to break down the nectar and start the process of honey.

When the bees return, they regurgitate it into the mouth of another worker bee in the hive, continuing the process of breaking down the water content in the nectar and the enzymes. The reason that the enzymes are essential is that they help to create the longevity of honey. This helps the bees store as much as they need for later use without it spoiling, ever. 

This process is done about 50 times over before it is transferred into the beeswax cells and is fanned with their wings to process it even further to reduce the water content. The nectar goes from 70% water to 20% within the processing stage. Without the bees processing, honey would not exist. Once this is done, they seal the cell, and the honey is ready. 

They also collect it for their young and to feed the rest of the colony that doesn’t go out to collect. 

What are the roles of different bees in the hive?

Until I started doing research, I had no idea how interesting and intelligent bees are. They all have a role to play, and they know exactly what they have to do to keep their colony alive and healthy. To interact with each other they have special body languages to help one another find food (how far away it is from the hive and how much there is) and to communicate what time of day it is based on the sun.

Wondering how they know what to do? Each bees hormones activate the part of their genetic make up that tells them what they have to do. Here’s the breakdown of the jobs that the bees have within their colony:

Queen Bee

The queen bee is responsible for populating the hive and laying eggs every single day. She is important for a healthy honey bee colony. Queen bees can lay up to 2000 eggs a day. They mate or get artificially inseminated early on in life and lay eggs for around 2-3 years.

After this time, beekeepers will get rid of their queens and replace them with young ones as they can no longer lay; they are deemed useless. Queen bees can naturally live anywhere between 5-9 years.

Bee honeycomb


Drones are the males in the hive. Their only goal is to mate with the queen and if possible from other colonies to propagate the species. Some colonies will push out the males if the food source is scarce.

They’re also involved in the artificial insemination process of new queens in the lab. They are squeezed to ejaculate sperm and it’s stored and injected into queen bees for new hives.  


The worker bees do everything else that is required and are always female. Here’s a list of what they do:

  • Care for the larvae (babies),
  • Maintain the cleanliness of the hive,
  • Build new cells,
  • Store the honey,
  • Tend to the queen and drones,
  • Ventilate the hive,
  • Pollinate plants,
  • Forage for food,
  • Guard and protect the nest.

The average life of a worker bee is typically six weeks.

Bees will normally leave the hive before they die. If they die inside the hive, other bees will remove them from the hive. 

What do bees use their honey for?

The other fact that I found alarming is that when beekeepers extract honey, they feed the bees with alternatives that have no nutritional value for the species. Things such as sugar water and high fructose corn syrup. This is normally done in the winter season to get the bees through a time when they don’t do much or any collecting. This is only if they choose to keep them.

They do this because they take their honey. Bees by nature, collect honey and store it for the winter months for themselves as food and insulation. They fill the wax then seal it to save it for later. Not for us to take. 

So let’s get one thing straight. Honey is made by the bees for bees. They don’t work hard all their lives to have their hard work taken away from them. That’s called stealing. 

How much honey does a bee make in its lifetime?

If you can comprehend that a bee only makes a 1/12th of a teaspoon of honey in their lifetime, then you’ll understand how precious this sticky nectar is for them. They have to visit 2000 flowers just to make a teaspoon of honey!

Imagine this. You work hard all your life, doing 70-80 hour weeks and make very little money. You can’t afford to do anything else but work, you’re just trying to survive. Now, think about someone else coming along and without permission or reason, and taking or “draining” your money. How would that make you feel?

Would you consider this exploitation? Or perhaps slavery? 

When we simplify it in this way and start considering that bees weren’t put on this earth to provide honey for us, then we can start to shift how we see them. They gather the honey for themselves.

Bee foraging

Should we stop eating foods that are pollinated by bees? 

This is a tricky question to answer. We farm in such a different way and at a much larger scale to what we did even 50 years ago. Huge monocultures have created a higher risk of disease in bees as well as exposure to pesticides that are sprayed on the crops—which has caused many issues as I mentioned before. 

You can learn more about this in a documentary called Vanishing of the Bees.

Bees are pollinators not for us to benefit from, but it’s something that happens when they are collecting for themselves.  The pollination happens by multiple types of bees, not just honeybees. This process is essential for us to have many of the foods that we find in our stores and at markets today. 

We shouldn’t be focusing our attention on stopping consumption of foods that are pollinated by bees—as this happens naturally. We should instead be focusing our attention on bringing back different species of bees, stopping consumption of honey and their wax, and creating sanctuaries for bees to help them live out their lives. We would have to do this like we would for any other animal that has been brought into existence for our selfish benefit and crowded out diversity in our ecosystem. 

A potential solution to the honeybee problem

It would be a good idea to focus our attention on supporting local farmers that grow a variety of organic fruits, nuts, seeds and vegetables, rather than buying products that depend solely on the exploitation of bees and other animals through monocrops. 

By going vegan, you’re also helping reduce the impact of monoculture by a long shot. Knowing that just in the US alone, 41 million tonnes of plant protein is grown for the animal agriculture industry simply doesn’t add up! It’s just an inefficient way of using resources. This is one of the main reasons the Amazon rainforest is being cleared—to grow feed for livestock and to raise livestock

But that’s a whole other post! 


But what about supporting local beekeepers?

Supporting local beekeepers still means that there’s an exploitative relationship in the extraction of honey. It’s inevitable. 

Not only that, but bees harvest that honey for themselves. Whether it’s commercial beekeeping or small local beekeepers, the result is still the same, stealing something that’s not ours. 

We always want to be pushing boundaries to include more animal products in our diet. Backyard eggs and honey being the ones that are most “justified” as completely natural and okay. 

Is Honey Vegan?

Many people argue that bees produce an excessive amount of honey so that we can take some of that for ourselves. How’s the excess amount of honey determined? Who says they have excess, and what is enough for them? How would we know where to draw the line? 

I can imagine that most small scale and backyard beekeepers do leave some honey for their bees. However, when one colony can eat up to 50 kilos (around 110 pounds) of honey in one year, I don’t know if the excess is justified for it to be taken. 

The bottom line is that we don’t need it. Humans can comfortably survive and thrive without it and we can help bees at the same time. We can live in harmony with them and help them in more than one way. 

We can plant more bee-friendly plants in our gardens, and create bee sanctuaries that help the bees live out their lives, without taking their honey. 

bee hotel

The ideal thing to help bees that are native to your area is to create a bee hotel, as pictured above. You create a space for them to come and create a home but with no intention of taking their honey. Some species of bees don’t even make honey, so with this in mind, make sure to not bring in honeybees to a nest like this. 

In my opinion, this is the best way to help support bees and our ecosystem of diverse species of bees so we don’t add yet another to the extinct list. Here is a video on how to make one at home, or alternatively, you can buy one

So, is honey vegan?

I hope that this article has shed some light on why honey is not vegan. With so many alternatives out there, we don’t have any reason to eat honey.

Some alternatives you can try are rice malt syrup, coconut nectar, date syrup, bee-free honey, maple syrup, molasses, and date syrup. 

Now it’s over to you, what do you think? Did you know much about the commercial beekeeping industry or how bees make honey? Would love to hear your thoughts in the comments below. 

Is honey vegan?

Other posts you’ll love:

  1. Is Alcohol Vegan? How To Approach Alcohol As a Vegan
  2. How To Go Vegan: A Guide On How To Transition To a Vegan Lifestyle
  3. Is It Okay For Vegans To Eat Eggs From Backyard Chickens?
  4. Willful Ignorance And Veganism
  5. What It’s Like To Raise a Vegan Dog

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12 thoughts on “Is Honey Vegan? Breaking Down The Ethics of Beekeeping”

  1. Not all beekeepers are unethical. It is extreme to expect all beekeepers to mistreat their bees. If you expect all beekeepers to be the worst beekeepers, then extreme Veganism is an extremist religion and is no different to ISIS.

    Honey is definitely vegan if ethics are adhered to. Do not sugar feed. Do not almond pollinate (Almonds are 100% not vegan). Do not wing clip. Do not extract more than excess honey. Do not extract over winter. Remove Pests and Diseases. Provide a safe and clean environment for the honeybees to live. It is far better on the environment if honeybees (not native) are not allowed into the wild to dominate and starve native bees.

    Source honey from a ethical beekeeper to ensure the honey is vegan friendly. Honey can be vegan, but you must make the effort to ensure the beekeeper is using ethical practices.

    Also, some incorrect information on this article: Bees only protect their brood (larvae). They will abandon honey if the hive is full. If there is no brood, they won’t kill themselves to protect it. Genetic selection isn’t to increase honey production but to decrease aggressive behaviours. Ironically, aggressive bees produce far more honey than gentle bees.

    1. Hi Mark, I hope after reading the other comments on this post you can attest that our stance is not black and white on the ethics of beekeeping. Like wool, silk and other ethical concerns, there’s an inherent sliding scale of ethics depending on the supplier of these goods. So like wool production, you can find examples of ethically made honey; however, the majority of honey supplied uses unethical practices.

      Even so-called “ethical” beekeepers are not entirely ethical, in terms of ticking the boxes you mentioned. The challenge for consumers is finding suppliers that they know for sure have ethical practices. Our position is, if it’s indeed challenging to find the good from the bad in a very grey area, there are alternatives. In any case, we appreciate your experience and perspective with us.

  2. I just love this piece too about bees. Bees are very intelligent and know me from others because I have fed them. They literally know my vehicle when I pull in fly through the window to be fed. What’s happening to them everyone needs to know. I just looked up Paul S again as he has found a way to help them.
    The marriage between Monsanto and bayer is one of the worst things to happen to our earth and her inhabitants.

  3. Such an informative article. As I read I kept comparing it to the popular narrative that “bees are dying and we don’t know why” when in reality there are many reasons many of which can be attributed to the callous and dangerous practices of commercial agriculture. Having kept bees as a hobby in the past- I did extensive research on whether to keep the honey or not. And I think ultimately you have to be responsible and do what’s best for your hive. If your hive is flourishing and you don’t live somewhere with harsh winters it may be okay to collect honey. I don’t think that backyard bee keepers collecting honey is having any profound impact on the current state of bees and if anything is beneficial to the species and the surrounding ecosystems.

    1. Thank you for sharing Ella. I agree you have to do what’s best for your hive and the bees. But I do worry about the fact that collecting the honey still enters you into a relationship with the bees where they are being taken advantage of for our gain. It’s more of a mindset thing.
      I also agree that backyard beekeeping doesn’t have a profound impact on the overall industry of beekeeping, yet. My concern there is that the types of bees that are kept and how those bees come to the backyard beekeeper. If they are rescued from commercial beekeepers or have a local species that help the ecosystem, that’s fine. But if they are bred (the bees that are not normally found in that area) and artificially inseminated queen bees for the purposed of “keeping bees”, then I don’t think it’s a healthy practice for more people to get into.
      It’s the same idea as the backyard chickens. Where did the chickens come from? Someone that is benefiting from selling them or are they being rescued from cage farms or are chickens that would have been slaughtered otherwise (e.g. male chicks). Something to consider.

  4. Hi, I’m not agree. The honey is very helpful for human health and one of the best food. Of course if it’s made ethical.

    1. Thanks for your comment Verginia.
      I do agree that it has many health benefits, but if we can use other alternatives that don’t exploit bees, then why not use them? I understand that there can be more “ethical’ ways to make honey, but in the end, they are still used for our own personal gain. Not for theirs. Bees make honey for themselves, not for us.

  5. Thanks for the post Masa. Unfortunately what you have said about large scale beekeeping operations and mass produced honey is correct.
    However, I should mention feeding sugar water sometimes is necessary as an emergency feed to keep the hive alive if they were not able to produce enough honey. This can happen if the spring was too wet or if there is a sudden cold snap.
    I also feel I should mention the spread of the varroa mite has put a huge stress on bee populations. The viruses spread by varroa mites and pesticides are likely responsible for CCD. Ironically, the largest hives have the most mites and bigger hives are more profitable to commercial beekeepers. So these large scale operations are partially responsible for the continued spread of the varroa mite. Unfortunately the only response they have is to treat with stronger miticides, which cause the mites to become resistant in a few generations. Commercial beekeeping is even more damaging and exploitative than what you mentioned here, unfortunately.
    I still believe backyard beekeeping can be done ethically because as a hobby there is no profit motive. If you feel uncomfortable taking honey, you dont have to. You can just let them pollinate your neighborhood. Top bar hives or ‘bee gums’ are ideal because they resemble a hollowed log which is where bees would make their hive in the wild. I’m just speaking from my own experiences with beekeeping. I hope this was informative.

    1. Thanks for sharing Dominic.
      I knew about the feeding of sugar water to bees in times of need but forgot to mention it in the post, so thank you for adding that in. We have left out sugar water in our backyard in the middle of the summer for them to hydrate and feed at the same time as when you live in a rented property; you don’t have bee-friendly plants around to help them.
      In my research, I did come across the mites but didn’t think it was a relevant topic to bring up, but it is a sad fact. Some interesting facts there, sounds like a vicious cycle that the commercial beekeeping industry has themselves in!
      I also believe it can be done ethically if they are left to their own devices. Even if they aren’t being exploited for the profit, they would be for what they make – it still enters into a relationship that makes us benefit from their hard work. Honey is an amazing thing, but I still believe it’s not designed for us, but the bees.
      I’ll have to do a bit more research into the type of hive you mentioned, sounds like a great solution to have if you want to create a proper bee sanctuary in your own space.
      Thanks again for sharing, as always 🙂

      1. Thank you for an informative article! I think the mites are actually very relevant, because their spread to North America and Europe is one of the reasons why the honeybee is highly unlikely to survive in any significant numbers without human intervention. If left to their own devices, without miticides and treatment, a colony would quite quickly become overrun with mites and collapse as a result of the diseases they spread.
        The problem is that Apis melliflera, or the western/European honeybee, is not adapted to dealing with the varroa mite at all. The mites were spread from an Asian species of honeybee (Apis cerana), which has evolved various methods of dealing with the mites. Interestingly, a lot of these adaptations make them unsuitable for commercial honey production…
        It might be that over time Apis melliflera would develop similar resistance, but evolution is a very slow process indeed.
        Also, on the honeybee hotels I would strongly recommend that people line the drilled holes with some sort of removable paper or otherwise clean them on a yearly basis. Without this, these solitary bee homes can also become overrun with mites, and kill the developing larvae before they ever get a chance to emerge. Also, these holes must be at least 6″ long/deep – many species of bee will only lay female eggs if the holes is deep enough, and otherwise will fill the hole with male bee eggs.

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